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Ketamine Clinical Trials

Comparison of Different Ratios of Propofol-ketamine Admixture in Rapid-sequence Induction of Anesthesia for Emergency Laparotomy: a Randomized Controlled Trial

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Id: NCT05166330

Organisation Name: Kasr El Aini Hospital

Overal Status: Not yet recruiting

Start Date: December 2021

Last Update: December 21, 2021

Lead Sponsor: Kasr El Aini Hospital

Brief Summary: Hypotension during anesthesia is associated with serious organ failure and death. The most critical period for intraoperative hypotension is the postinduction period during which, one-third of intraoperative hypotension occurs. Post-induction hypotension has many contributing factors; however, it is closely related to anesthetic drugs. Therefore, manipulation of induction agents makes post-induction hypotension likely preventable. Emergency laparotomy is a critical category of surgery whose patients are usually hemodynamically compromised and prone to post-induction hypotension; furthermore, these patients are usually at high risk of aspiration of gastric contents and require rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia and optimum intubating conditions. Thus, induction of anesthesia for emergency laparotomy requires meticulous balance between achievement of adequate hypnosis and maintenance of stable blood pressure.

Propofol is the commonest hypnotic agent worldwide. However, it is usually associated with hypotension especially in compromised patients. Ketamine produces dissociative anesthesia and sympathetic stimulation which provides more stable hemodynamic profile; however, ketamine is not widely used as a routine hypnotic because it produces psychomimetic effects such as delirium and emergence agitation. Nevertheless, ketamine still has a role in induction of anesthesia in patients with shock and during procedural sedation. Ketamine is also used as analgesic adjuvant during general anesthesia.

Propofol/ketamine admixture (ketofol) was introduced in anesthetic practice aiming to compensate the side effects of the two drugs and to provide, consequently, the desired balance between adequate hypnosis and hemodynamic stability. Ketofol is currently used with a diversity in the ratio between the two drugs which ranges between 1:1 and 1:10 between ketamine and propofol. Despite its frequent use in sedation and complete anesthesia, most of the available literature for comparisons of different ketofol mixtures was restricted to procedural sedation whose results are not applicable in induction of anesthesia due to the different desirable level of hypnosis and recovery. Therefore, the best combination of the two components of ketofol for induction of anesthesia is unknown

  • Hypotension
  • Induction of Anesthesia

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