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Ketamine Clinical Trials

Randomized Triple-blind Placebo Controlled Trial of Influence of Morphine or Ketamine or Saline Applied During In-hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on Early Survival and Neurological Outcome

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Id: NCT04009759

Organisation Name: University Hospital, Akershus

Overal Status: Not yet recruiting

Start Date: October 1, 2021

Last Update: June 11, 2021

Lead Sponsor: University Hospital, Akershus

Brief Summary: A small numbers of patients (10-15%) treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are discharged from hospitals with a favorable neurologic outcome. However, a higher incidence of chest injuries (30-70%), mainly rib and sternum fractures, are observed among the survivors. It's no surprise that 6 months after cardiac arrest (CA) 50-70% of the patients who have survived continue to have pain and stress-related problems. Based on the need for the pain/stress treatment in these patients and several experimental evidences demonstrating neuroprotective features of anesthetics it is logical to presume that application of anesthesia during CPR may be indicated. In rodents exposed to hypoxic gas (5% 02, 95% N2) for 70 min, all seven animals died at the end of the experiments in the naloxone pre-treated group while only one out of seven rats died in the morphine pre-treated group, and five of seven rats died in the control group. In human volunteers, intravenously administered 60 mg of morphine did not alter cerebral blood flow and cerebral vascular resistance but markedly depressed cerebral oxygen uptake. Interestingly, in critical patients, morphine even in low doses is effective in relieving dyspnea by altering central perception and decreasing anxiety. In rats, morphine demonstrates dose- depending reduction of cerebral glucose utilization in limbic and forebrain regions. Thus, the main points of application for morphine in treatment of CA may be a reduction of oxygen/glucose consumption. Pre-treatment of zebrafish with ketamine protects against cardiac arrest-induced brain injury by inhibiting Ca2+ wave propagation and consequently it improves survival rate. Inhibition of NMDA receptors by ketamine reduces neuronal apoptosis and attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to tissue injury. The sympathomimetic effects of ketamine may facilitates recovery of systemic blood pressure during CPR. Retrospective investigations demonstrate that patients who are treated with opioids before or during CA have a statistically significantly higher survival rate and much better neurological outcome compared to untreated patients. Experimental studies have a limitation as all animals are treated with anesthesia and therefore survival rate varies between 50-90%. Thus, prospective research is urgently needed to investigate the influence of morphine or/and ketamine on survival and neurological outcome in patients with CA.

  • Cardiac Arrest

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